Three things happened in 1913 that began bleeding Democracy to death. The first was the ratification of the 16th Amendment, to the Constitution, on February 13th. The second was the ratification of the 17th Amendment, to the Constitution, on April 8th. The third was the creation of the Federal Reserve, a private banking cartel, on December 23rd. How could these three things bleed democracy to death? As the saying goes, “The devil is in the details.” What happened to the United States of America was of the most devilish sort and has adversely effected every American citizen since. First, let’s summarize each of the three events and what they mean. The facts:
The 16th Amendment – This is the amendment that says the government has the power to “lay and collect taxes on incomes.” In other words, justification for a federal income tax. This point has been argued that the government had the right to do this anyway. If that argument makes sense, then the amendment doesn’t. So why have it? How many individuals or businesses would ever have in any legal document, much less a Constitutional amendment, the words, “from whatever source derived.” This amendment modified Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution. The 16th amendment is shown below.
AMENDMENT XVI - Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.
Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
The 17th Amendment – This is the amendment that modifies Article I, section 3 of the Constitution and says each state shall be composed of two senators from each state and elected by the people. This amendment modified Article I, section 3 of the Constitution. The 17th amendment is shown below
AMENDMENT XVII - Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.
Note: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the 17th amendment.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.
When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.
This amendment changed the original Constitution, where previously each state legislature appointed the Senators. This amendment changed that process to allowing the people from each state to vote for the two senators to represent their state. Under the original Constitution, the people elected the two Senators indirectly, because they elected all the members of the state legislatures. Arguments abound for both repealing and keeping the 17th Amendment. The Constitution Times believes that the 17th Amendment should be repealed as it would put more accountability on the states, decentralize Federal intrusion and require more of a connection between the Senate office holders and their states and ultimately their constituents. Accountability begins at home.
So now you have two amendments to the Constitution, both ratified in 1913 and both modifying the language of the original Constitution. Up until 1913, the last amendment to the Constitution hadn’t occurred since 1870, some 43 years earlier. Seem odd?
The Establishment of the Federal Reserve – Congress and President Wilson did one other thing in 1913, that made the money trifecta. They passed the law, the Glass-Owen bill, that created the Federal Reserve. This would be the third time in the history of the United States of America that the country had a central bank. From the book The Creature From Jekyll Island, by G. Edward Griffin, on page 468: “The Federal Reserve Act was released from the joint House and Senate conference committee on December 22, 1913, just as Congress was preoccupied with the departure for the Christmas recess and in no mood for debate. It quickly passed by a vote of 282 to 60 in the House and 43 to 23 in the Senate. The President signed it into law the next day.”
Simply stated, those are the facts; Two Amendments modifying the Constitution, ratified by Congress in the same year, and the Creation of the Federal Reserve and signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. So far, so good. Right?
There was nothing good for American citizens that came out of these decisions.
The creation of the Federal Reserve started with a secret meeting in 1910 at Jekyll Island in Georgia. Leaving from a New Jersey railroad station, late at night and in a private railroad car, a group of powerful men had assembled. Led by Nelson Aldrich, who was a powerful Senator from Rhode Island, he gathered the men in his private rail car for the trip. According to G. Edward Griffin’s book, included were Abraham Piatt Andrew, Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Treasury; Frank A. Vanderlip, president of the National City Bank; Henry P. Davison, senior partner at J.P. Morgan; Charles D. Norton, President of J.P. Morgan’s First National Bank of New York; Benjamin Strong, head of J.P. Morgan’s Bankers Trust Company; and Paul M. Warburg. Warburg was a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Company and brother to Max Warburg, the head of the Warburg banking consortium in Germany and the Netherlands.
Their purpose was to create a private banking cartel and that is exactly what they did – The Federal Reserve.
Finally, there was one other document created in 1913, under the Revenue Act of 1913, for which everyone should be familiar. Can you guess what it is? The government form is most affectionately known as Form 1040. The affidavit, to be signed by the individual signing the form stated:
“I solemnly swear (or affirm) that the foregoing return, to the best of my knowledge and belief, contains a true and complete statement of all gains, profits, and income received by or accrued to me during the year for which the return is made, and that I am entitled to all the deductions and exemptions entered or claimed therein, under the Federal Income-tax Law of October 3, 1913.”
A hundred years has not even passed, since these Constitutional Amendments and the Federal Reserve was created. Yet, the Republic is almost 15 Trillion dollars in debt, not including unfunded liabilities, and the debt is still increasing. If none of these actions had been taken in 1913, would we have been better off as a nation and as individual citizens? The answer must be “yes”. Sadly, the actions taken in 1913, and many thereafter, have not been in the interests of the people or the nation, but for a banking and power-hungry elite. Unless uprooted, corruption follows no timeline and will destroy a nation.